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Accident prevention in School Age.

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INTRODUCTION:

An accident is an unforeseen and unplanned circumstance, often occurring with a lack of intention or necessity. It usually implies a generally negative outcome that may have been avoided or prevented, had circumstances leading to the accident been recognized. Every year one million children under the age of 18 years are taken to accident and emergency units after being involved in accidents at home. Many of the accidents that happen in and around the home can be avoided by identifying and understanding potential accident risks in the home. 

COMMON CHILDHOOD ACCIDENTS:

Following are the most common childhood accidents:

  1. Fall
  2. Burn
  3. Fracture and dislocation
  • Sprain
  • Cut and abrasions
  • Animal bites
  • Poisoning
  • Drowning
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  1. Foreign bodies
  2. Suffocation
  1. Crush injuries.

TYPES OF ACCIDENTS:

  1. According to the location where the accident occurs, they are of 2 types:
  2. Occurring outside home
  3. Occurring in the home.
  4. According to severity, accidents are of two types:
  5. Major
  6. Minor

FACTORS AFFECTING ACCIDENTS:

  1. Age: accidents are more common between 2-10 years of age.
  2. Sex: boys between 10-14 years of age are more prone to accidents.
  • Ordinal position: elder and younger children are more protected but middle ones are neglected. So, they are more prone to accidents.
  • Time of the day: most accidents occur in afternoon.
  • Weather condition: accidents occur more in rainy season.
  • Place: accidents may occur in home or on road side.

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS:

The important causes of accidents among children are as follows:

  1. Curiosity among children.
  2. Lack of supervision, especially at home.
  • Lack of playgrounds and over crowded streets.
  • Impulses of the moment, e.g. boys want to show off their bravery so they often indulge in risky acts.
  • Inability to judge danger.

EFFECTS OF ACCIDENTS:

  1. Physical damage: even a minor accident can cause cut, fracture, scar, sprain, dislocation, etc.
  2. Physiological damage: the child thinks that people will feel that he is naughty and careless if has too many bandages on body. He thinks himself a “wounded hero”.

COMMON CHILDHOOD ACCIDENTS:

  1. Motor vehicles: both as passengers and as pedestrians children may get injured.
  2. Burns: children may get burnt from heating appliances like stoves, irons, heaters, etc. they may get bursnt from-
  3. Open fire:- fireplaces, outdoor fires, matches, lighters.
  4. Hot liquids: bath water, cooking fluid, tea, coffee.
  5. Electric circuit: defective wiring, unguarded outets.
  6. Strong acids and alkalies: ammonia, hydrochloric acid.
  7. Drowning: in bath tub, sink, wells, swimming pools, ponds, ditches, rivers, etc.
  8. Falls: from furniture, stairs, ungauarded windows, terrace.
  9. Poisoning: drugs (aspirin, sedatives, antihypertensive), insetcides, cleaning agents, kerosene.
  • Suffocation: plastic bags, discarded refrigerators.
  • Foreign bodies: nuts especially peanuts, dried beans, nails, screws, bolts, beads, etc.
  • Cuts and punctures: knife, scissors, large needles, broken glass, tools, etc.
  • Crush injury: from wringers.

OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Drowning

  • Children can drown in a water; they must be supervised at all times near ponds, water containers or pools.
  • Garden ponds or pools must be properly fenced.

Poisoning

  • Keep chemicals and medicines out of sight and reach.

Cuts and bumps

  • Keep scissors, knives and razors out of children’s reach.
  • Cover sharp corners; use door stoppers to prevent trapped fingers.

Car safety

  • Use correct child seats.

Never leave children alone in a car.

(All the suggestion is our own so don’t consider it doctors advice)….by nursji team

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