Professional RN,RM

CORONA VIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS

www.nurseji.com
Written by Author

CORONA VIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS

INTRODUCTION:

Pneumonia of unknown origin was noted down to the China office of the WHO on December 31st, 2019. (1) This Pneumonia of unknown origin is recognized by WHO as a SARs-CoV-2 which is generally known as the Novel coronavirus which leads to the highest mortality rate all around the world including frontline health care workers specially called corona warriors. (3) The COVID-19 coronavirus has banged the world off its axis. We won’t return to anything approaching normal — that is, life without social distancing, quarantines, masks, school closures, and other control measures — until most of the world has been vaccinated against the virus. Everyone, therefore, has the same question on their mind: How fast will a vaccine be ready? (2)(9) Health-care workers are crucial to any health-care system. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers are at a substantially increased risk of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and could come to considerable harm as a result. (4)(5) There are only things that can reduce the transmission among health care workers is “Prevention is better than cure”. That’s why every health care worker must aware of the WHO strategies to reduce or limit the transmission of coronavirus infections.

IPC strategies to prevent or limit transmission of COVID-19 among health care workers (WHO)(6)(7)

  1. Ensuring triage, early recognition & source control. (isolation patient with suspected covid-19)(10)
  2. Applying standard precautions for all patients and HCWs.
  3. Implementing empirical additional precautions(droplets and contact and whenever applicable airborne precautions)
  4. Implementing administrative controls
  5. Using environmental and engineering controls
  1. Ensuring triage, early recognition & source control. (isolation patient with-suspected-covid-19
  2. Encourage HCWs to have a high level of clinical suspicion.
  3. Establish well-equipped triage satiation at the entrance to the facility supported by trained staff.
  4. Hand hygiene and respiratory hygiene is essential for all(8)
  5. Post sign in the public area reminding symptomatic patients.
  6. Applying standard precautions for all HCWs.

Standard Precautions includes:

  • Hand hygiene,
  • Respiratory hygiene : ensure that the following respiratory measures  are used.
  • Ensure that all patient cover their nose and mouth with tissue or elbow when coughing or sneezing(8)
  • Offer medical mask to patients with suspected cases. While they are in waiting area. Use N-95 mask preferable for HCWs. Perform hand hygiene after contact with respiratory secretions.
  • Use of PPE according to risk assessment,
  • Injection safety precautions,
  • Proper waste management,
  • Proper linen,
  • Environment cleaning  and
  • Sterilization of patient care equipments.

Use of PPE according to risk assessment

The rational, correct & consistent use of PPE also helps reduce the spread of pathogens. PPE effectiveness depends strongly on adequate and regular supply, adequate staff training, appropriate hand hygiene and appropriate human behavior.(10)

Environment cleaning and Sterilization of patient care equipment’s

  • It is important that environmental cleaning & disinfection prevention procedures are followed consistently & correctly. Thoroughly cleaning environmental surfaces with water & detergent and applying commonly used hospital-level disinfectant (such as sodium hypochlorite) are effective and sufficient procedures.
  • Medical devices & equipment, laundry, food service utensils & medical waste should be managed in accordance with safe routine procedures.
  • Implementing empirical additional precautions:

Contacts & droplet precautions:

  • In addition to using standard precautions, patients should be placed in adequately ventilated single rooms. For general ward with natural ventilation is considered to be 60L/s per patient.
  • When single rooms are not available, patients should be grouped to gather with social distancing.
  • All patient’s beds should be places at 1 metre.
  • Where possible, Team of HCWs should be designated to care exclusively covid-19 patients to reduce the risk of transmission.
  • HCWs should use medical mask.
  • HCWs should wear eye protections(goggles) or face shield to avoid contamination of mucus membranes.
  • HCWs should wear a clean ,  non sterile long sleeved  gown.
  • They should also use gloves.
  • The use of boots, coverall and apron is not required during routine care.
  • Equipments should either be single use or disposable.
  • After patient care, appropriate doffing and disposal of all PPE & hand hygiene should be carried out. A new set of PPE is needed when care is given to different patient.
  • 12. HCWs should refrain from touching eyes, nose & mouth with potential contaminated gloves or bare hands.
  • Avoid moving & transporting patient out of their room. If requires, use portable x ray machines or other designated diagnostic equipments. If transport is required, use predetermine transport route  to minimize exposure. Patients must wear medical mask.
  • Notify the area of receiving patients as early as in advance before the patients arrival to take them necessary precautions.
  • Routinely clean & disinfect surfaces with which the patient is in contact.
  • Maintain a record of all HCWs and all persons entering a patient’s room.
  • Administrative measures related to HCWS:
  • Provision of adequate training.(9)
  • Ensuring an adequate patient- staff ratio.
  • Establishing a surveillance process for ARI among HCWs.
  • Adequate supplies of PPE & other items.
  • Educating publics.
  • Drafting policies.
  • Adherence to guidelines.(9)
  • Control and avoid crowds & maintain social distancing
  • Ensuring that HCWs & the public understand the importance of promptly seeking medical care.
  • Monitoring the HCWs compliance with standard precautions & provide mechanism for improvement as needed.
  • Using environmental & engineering controls:
  • Adequate ventilation & adequate environmental cleaning in health care facilities.
  • Separation of at least 1 meter should be maintained between all the patients.
  • Ensure that cleaning & disinfection procedures are followed consistently & correctly.
  • Cleaning environment surfaces with water & detergent  and applying commonly used hospital disinfectant ( such as sodium hypochlorite) is effective & sufficient.(10)
  • Manage laundry, food service, utensils & medical waste in accordance with safe routine procedures.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT & SPONSORSHIP:

Nil

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:

There are no conflicts of interest. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dabhi is on the editorial board of the current journal.

CONCLUSION

Health care workers being the frontline COVID warriors must have adequate knowledge and skills to manage COVID-19 cases effectively. All the health care workers who are assigned to care of the Covid-19 patients must know about the infection prevention or limit the transmission of deadly disease. They must be aware to keep themselves updated with the new guidelines on COVID 19 as per WHO protocol. This will improve their confidence in dealing with such cases and patient outcome as well. This review articles provides awareness among health care workers and help them to reduce transmission of infection during care of covid-19 patients and also help to reduce the mortality among the corona warriors (health care workers).

  •  Ethical Approval.
  • Not Applicable
  • Author Contribution
  •  The author has reviewed relevant literature and prepared the abstract and manuscript.
  • Competing interests
  • There are no competing interests.

REFERENCES:

  1. The World Health Organisation. Disease Outbreak News: Puemonia of Unknown Cause-China; 2020, Available from: https://www.who.int/csr/don/05-january-2020-puemonia-0f-unknown-cause-china/en/.{last accessed on 2020 Apr23}
  2. https://science.thewire.in/health/coronavirus-vaccines-clinical-trials/
  3. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/
  4. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30458-8/fulltext
  5. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/L20-0175
  6. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIlOfas4q07QIVtYNLBR3ICwLmEAAYASAAEgKK8fD_B
  7. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov
  8. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html
  9. https://www.mohfw.gov.in/
  10. https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-020-03076-1

Article written by :-

www.nurseji.com
SANJAY KUMAR DABHI
Professor, Govt. College of Nursing, New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat, India

“Life is so precious so enjoy every moment of it”


Biography:- SANJAY KUMAR DABHI
Mr. Sanjay Kumar Dabhi is Ph.D. Scholar in the field of Community Health Nursing (Public health )and Currently working as an Assistant Professor(lecturer), Govt. College of Nursing, New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat, India, I have 25 years of clinical as well as academic experience. I have presented many scientific paper & posters at national & International conferences. I have achieved many milestones such as Member of Editorial Board of Journal of Perioperative & Critical Intensive Care Nursing, London Publishing, Barcelona, Spain, Scientific paper presenter, Evaluator, Moderator, Resource person, Organizer, the eminent speaker in many conferences and workshop, seminars & Webinars, In association, I have a Lifetime membership of TNAI (Trained Nurses Association of India), SOMI(Society of Midwifery in India), NRSI(Nursing Research Society of India), NTA(National Teacher’s Association of India & IIPH Indian Institute of Public Health). I am an executive member of NTA, Gujarat Branch, I am also an active Committee member in organizing and Implementing Introduction & Orientation programs for nursing staff and for student’s research & publication, project Nodal officer of AISHE (All India Survey on Higher Education) & Executive member of the local ethical committee.

About the author

Author

4 Comments

Leave a Comment

Copyright © 2022. NurseJi All Right Reserved