MUMPS (EPIDEMIC PAROTITIS),Definition, sign & symptoms and management.
DEFINITION: An acute infectious disease caused by a virus affecting the glandular and nervous tissues.
It also passes from 1 person to another through saliva, nasal secretions, close personal contact.
CAUSATIVE AGENT: causative agent is myxovirus parotiditis, a RNA virus.
PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY: it is usually 4 to 6 days before the onset of clinical symptoms with salivary gland swelling and a week thereafter or more.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: droplet infection and direct contact with infected person.
Saliva, fomites and air borne droplets spread the disease.
INCUBATION PERIOD: it is generally for 18 days with a range from 2 to 4 weeks.
Virus enters through nose or mouth
Proliferates in parotid glands and respiratory mucosa
Viremia and Swelling of gland
It is manifested as generalized viral infection.
- loss of appetite
- Puffy cheek
- sore throat
- earache and pain behind the ear on chewing and swallowing within 24 hours of onset
- tenderness and swelling of parotid glands are found within 1 to 3 days
RISK FACTORS FOR CONTRACTING MUMPS
- Failure to vaccinate
- Weak immunity
- Age: a child between the age group of 2-12 years.
- Season: winter or spring seasons.
- Traveling to high-risk regions
- clinical examination for tender swelling of the parotid gland
- History collection.
- On examining the mouth, swelling of glands if present or not?
- Complement fixation test
- CSF study and blood count
- MMR vaccine
- There is no specific treatment for mumps
- The management includes administering antipyretics and analgesics to treat fever and pain.
- Steroids are administered to relieve pain and swelling in case of orchitis.
- Bed rest and local support to be provided to the child
- Warm saline mouth wash and liquid diet is needed in the difficulty of chewing
- Use droplet precautions for hospitalization.
- Avoid exposure to immunocompromised individuals
- Keep children out of daycare until all symptoms subside.
- Encourage diversional activities
- Give non-aspirin analgesics and antipyretics to control fever and pain.
- Talking may be painful. Provide a bell or other attention-getting device
- Apply warm or cool compresses to the parotid area.
- Be alert for signs of complications.
- Guillane barre syndrome
- Drink aloe vera juice
- Use ginger due to its antiviral as well as anti-inflammatory properties
- Consume soft and semi-solid food
- Rich source of the vitamin must be taken in the diet
- Consuming carrot juice with pineapple and grape is effective
- Garlic gives pain relief